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a grading of the hardness of the parent material into soft, medium, or hard is not as useful as the original method of describing texture because there are too many parent materials to describe and too many methods to describe them. therefore, although grading is a valuable method of identifying the relative hardness of the parent material and for describing the effect of biotic and abiotic agents on the soil, it should not be used as the sole method for describing the soil texture. it is especially difficult to relate the effects of soil management practices to the texture of the parent material, because there is no way to tell the difference between the effect of the soils on hard and soft parent materials. a soil is described by its texture as well as by its parent material. thus, for example, sand is defined as having all the soil particles in the sand size class. a classification based on the proportion of silt, sand, and clay is as follows: loamy sand has more than 70 percent of the soil particles in the sand size class (g1-g2) and less than 30 percent of the soil particles in the silt size class (g5-g10). sandy loam has more than 50 percent of the soil particles in the sand size class (g1-g2) and less than 20 percent of the soil particles in the silt size class (g5-g10). sandy clay loam has more than 40 percent of the soil particles in the sand size class (g1-g2) and more than 20 but less than 50 percent of the soil particles in the silt size class (g5-g10). clay loam has more than 10 but less than 40 percent of the soil particles in the sand size class (g1-g2) and more than 50 percent of the soil particles in the silt size class (g5-g10). silty clay has more than 10 but less than 20 percent of the soil particles in the sand size class (g1-g2) and more than 30 but less than 50 percent of the soil particles in the silt size class (g5-g10). clay has more than 5 but less than 10 percent of the soil particles in the sand size class (g1-g2) and more than 50 percent of the soil particles in the silt size class (g5-g10).
observations of soil structure should be recorded directly, through descriptions, drawings, or photos. the information should be recorded separately from information about physical and chemical properties, such as bulk density, porosity, water-holding capacity, and available water. a description of the soil is made using all types of written communication appropriate for the soil. although many soil descriptions in textbooks and professional publications are copied directly from field notes, the same information can be recorded in the form of a scientific notation on a soil map.
many soils have been classified by soil textural types using a scale ranging from 0 to 10. soils on this scale are loosely categorized by visual attributes that distinguish common patterns among homogeneous soils, such as brown, brownish-gray, gray, grayish-brown, sandy, fine-textured, fine-textured brown, fine-textured brownish-gray, mixed, stiff, and lumpy. although this scale is widely used, it has been superseded by more precise textural classifications and scales, such as those described in soil science society of america (sssa) standards (american association of cereal chemists, 1991). the sssa scale is used to indicate the effects of soil disturbance on physical and chemical properties.
albedo for the surface and subsoil horizon is given by the following equations. for particle-size classes 5 and smaller, the value is approximately 0.4 for sand and loamy sand and 0.7 for silt, loam, and sandy clay loam. for larger classes, the formula should be scaled in proportion to the particle size.